As veterinarians, we often get asked whether it is better to allow your cat to roam freely outside or to keep them indoors. The question of whether you should let your cat roam or keep them inside is a personal one and depends on your cat's health and personality. We’ll explore the pros and cons of indoor and outdoor living for cats, as well as ways to keep outdoor cats safe. When considering indoor vs outdoor cats, consulting with your cat’s veterinarian is always a great place to start.

Pros of Indoor Living for Cats

Keeping cats inside reduces their risk of injury or illness as indoor cats are less likely to be injured by cars, other animals, or to get lost. Indoor cats also have reduced exposure to diseases, such as parasites, fleas, ticks, heartworm, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Additionally, indoor cats may have longer lifespans, as they are not exposed to as many health risks and dangers.

Cons of Indoor Living for Cats

One con for indoor cats is reduced physical activity and mental stimulation, which can lead to boredom, obesity, and other health problems. Indoor cats may be more prone to urinary tract problems, as they may not have as many opportunities to urinate. Indoor cats may also develop litter box issues if their litter box is not clean or is not located in a suitable area.

Pros of Outdoor Living for Cats

While there are risks, outdoor cats have more opportunities for exploration. Outdoor cats can explore their surroundings and engage in natural cat behaviors, such as hunting and climbing. Outdoor cats also tend to be more physically active, which can lead to better overall health and well-being. Outdoor cats have a reduced need for a litter box, which can be a benefit for owners who do not want to deal with litter box maintenance.

Cons of Outdoor Living for Cats

Outdoor cats are at a much greater risk of injury or illness from external hazards like cars, other animals, and environmental hazards. Outdoor cats are more likely to be exposed to diseases and parasites that indoor cats may not encounter, such as fleas, ticks, heartworm, and FIV. Outdoor cats tend to have a shorter lifespan than indoor cats, as they are exposed to more dangers.

Frequently Asked Questions

How far do cats roam?

Cats are natural explorers, so it is not uncommon for them to wander several miles away from home. However, the average range for an outdoor cat is usually within a few hundred yards of their home. Factors such as breed, age, and sex can also influence a cat's roaming habits. Male cats  tend to roam farther than female cats.

How long can an indoor cat survive outside?

Indoor cats are not accustomed to the dangers of the outdoors and are at a greater risk of injury or illness if they escape outside. The length of time an indoor cat can survive outside depends on many factors, including the cat's age, health, and level of outdoor experience. In general, it is recommended that indoor cats be kept inside, as they are at a much greater risk of getting injured or lost if let outside.

How to keep outdoor cats warm?

If you have an outdoor cat, it is important to take steps to keep them warm during the colder months. Outdoor cats can be susceptible to hypothermia, frostbite, and other cold-related injuries. Here are a few tips for keeping your outdoor cat warm:

  • Provide a shelter. Outdoor cats need a warm, dry place to rest and sleep. A shelter can be as simple as a cardboard box lined with blankets, or as elaborate as a custom-built outdoor cat enclosure. Make sure the shelter is insulated, weatherproof, and large enough for your cat to move around comfortably.
  • Provide food and water. Outdoor cats need extra calories to maintain their body heat, so make sure your cat has access to plenty of food and water. You may also want to consider feeding your cat a high-calorie cat food during the winter months.
  • Provide warm bedding. A soft, warm bed inside an enclosure can help your cat stay warm and cozy.

Can an indoor cat become an outdoor cat?

While it is possible for an indoor cat to become an outdoor cat, it is not usually recommended. Outdoor living is not for every cat, and there are many dangers and risks associated with outdoor life. If you are considering letting your indoor cat become an outdoor cat, there are a few things you can do to make the transition easier and safer:

  • Introduce them gradually. Start by letting your cat outside for short periods of time under your supervision. Gradually increase the amount of time your cat spends outside until they are confident in their new surroundings.
  • Take safety precautions Make sure your cat is up-to-date on their vaccinations, and consider getting them microchipped in case they get lost. Provide your cat with a collar and ID tag, and make sure they are spayed or neutered to reduce the risk of wandering. 
  • Outdoor living accommodations. Provide your cat with a shelter, food and water, and a safe, enclosed outdoor area where they can explore and play.


The decision to let your cat roam outside or to keep them inside is a personal one that should be made in consultation with your veterinarian. While there are certainly pros to letting your cat roam outside, you should be aware of the risks and the steps you can take to keep them safe.

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Luckily, BetterVet provides pet microchipping services that can be bundled in with a standard wellness exam.

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